Reduced Basis Methods

1. Model Order Reduction

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Problem statement

Goal : Replicate input-output behavior of large-scale system \(\Sigma\) over a certain (restricted) range of

  • forcing inputs and

  • parameter inputs

problem statement
Figure 1. Problem statement

Given large-scale system \(\Sigma_\mathcal{N}\) of dimension \(\mathcal{N}\), find a reduced order model \(\Sigma_N\) of dimension \(N << \mathcal{N}\) such that: The approximation error is small, i.e., there exists a global error bound such that :

  • \(\|u(\mu) - u_N (\mu)\| \leq \varepsilon_{\mathrm{des}}\), and \(|s(\mu) - s_N (\mu)| \leq \varepsilon^s_{\mathrm{des}} , \forall \mu \in D^{\mu}\).

  • Stability (and passivity) is preserved.

  • The procedure is computationally stable and efficient.

1.2. Motivation

Generalized Inverse Problem :

  • Given PDE(\(\mu\)) constraints, find value(s) of parameter \(\mu\) which:

    • (OPT) minimizes (or maximizes) some functional;

    • (EST) agrees with measurements;

    • (CON) makes the system behave in a desired manner;

    • or some combination of the above

  • Full solution computationally very expensive due to a repeated evaluation for many different values of \(\mu\)

  • Goal: Low average cost or real-time online response.

1.3. Methodologies

  • Reduced Basis Methods

  • Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

  • Balanced Truncation

  • Krylov Subspace Methods

  • Proper Generalized Decomposition

  • Modal Decomposition

  • Physical model reduction

  • …​

Disclaimer on Model Order Reduction Techniques

  • They Do not replace your favorite discretization scheme (e.g. FE, FV, FD), but instead are build upon and supplement these schemes.

  • They are not useful if you are interested in a single high-fidelity solution of your high-dimensional problem, but instead if you are interested in the many-query or real-time context.

1.4. Summary

Many problems in computational engineering require many or real-time evaluations of PDE(\(\mu\))-induced + input-output relationships.

Model order reduction techniques enable certified, real-time calculation + of outputs of PDE(\(\mu\)) + for parameter estimation, optimization, and control.

2. Reduced Basis Method

2.1. Problem Statement

A model order reduction technique that allows efficient and reliable reducedorder approximations for a large class of parametrized partial differentialequations (PDEs) in real-time or in the limit of many queries.

  • Comparison to other model reduction techniques:

    • Parametrized problems(material, constants, geometry,…​)

    • A posteriori error estimation

    • Offline-online decomposition

    • Greedy algorithm (to construct reduced basis space)

  • Motivation :

    • Efficient solution of optimization and optimal control problems governed by parametrized PDEs.

2.1.1. Problem statement

Given a parameter \(\underbrace{\mu}_{\text{parameter}} \in \underbrace{D^\mu}_\text{parameter domain}\), evaluate \(\underbrace{s(\mu)}_\text{output} = L(\mu)^T \underbrace{u(\mu)}_\text{field variable}\) where \(u(\mu)\in\underbrace{X}_\text{FE space}\) satisfies a PDE \(A(\mu) u(\mu) = f(\mu)\).

Difficulties :

  • Need to solve \(\textit{PDE}_{FE}(\mu)\) numerous times at different values of \(\mu\),

  • Finite element space \(X\) has a large dimension \(\mathcal{N}\).

2.1.2. Key Observation

RB scheme
Figure 2. Reduced Basis Method

2.1.3. General Problem Statement

Given a system \(\Sigma_\mathcal{N}\) of large dimension N,

gen prob fe
Figure 3. Reduced Basis Method


  • \(u(\mu, t) \in \mathbb{R}^{\mathcal{N}}\), the state

  • \(s(\mu, t)\), the outputs of interest

  • \(g(t)\), the forcing or control inputs

are functions of

  • \(\mu \in D\), the parameter inputs

  • \(t\), time

and the matrices \(M\), \(A\), \(B\), and \(L\) also depend on \(\mu\).

Construct a reduced order system \(\Sigma_N\) of dimension \(N \ll \mathcal{N}\),

gen prob rb
Figure 4. Reduced Basis Method

where \(u_N(\mu) \in \mathbb{R}^N\) is the reduced state.

We start by considering \(\dot{u} = 0\)

Full Model

\(\begin{align} A(\mu) u(\mu)& = & F(\mu)\\ s(\mu)&=&L^T(\mu) u(\mu) \end{align}\)

Reduced Model

\(\begin{align} A_N(\mu) u_N(\mu)& = & F_N(\mu)\\ s_N(\mu)&=&L^T_N(\mu) u_N(\mu) \end{align}\)

2.2. Key ingredients

2.2.1. Approximation

  • Take « snapshots » at different \(\mu\)-values: \(u(\mu_i), i = 1 \ldots N\), and let \(Z_N=[\xi_1,\ldots,\xi_N] \in \mathbb{R}^{\mathcal{N}\times N}\) where the basis/test functions, \(\xi_i\) « \(=\) » \(u(\mu_i)\), are orthonormalized

  • For any new \(\mu\), approximate \(u\) by a linear combination of the \(\xi_i\) \(u(\mu) \approx \sum_{i=1}^N u_{N,i}(\mu) \xi_i = Z_N u_N(\mu)\) determined by Galerkin projection, i.e.,

\[\begin{align*} \underbrace{Z_N^T A(\mu) Z_N}_{=:A_N(\mu)}u_N(\mu) &= \underbrace{Z_N^TF(\mu)}_{=:F_N(\mu)}\\ s_N(\mu) &= \underbrace{L^T(\mu)Z_N}_{=:L_N^T(\mu)}u_N(\mu) \end{align*}\]

2.2.2. A posteriori error estimation

  • Assume well-posedness; \(A(\mu)\) positive and definite with a minimal eigenvalue \(\alpha_a :=\lambda_1 >0\), where \(A \xi=\lambda X \xi\) and \(X\) corresponds to the \(X\)-inner product, \((v, v)_X = \|v\|_X^2\)

  • Let \(\underbrace{e_N = u - Z_N\ u_N}_{\text{error}}\) , and \(\underbrace{r = F - A\ Z_N\ u_N}_{\text{residual}}, \forall \mu \in D^\mu\), so that \(A(\mu) e_N (\mu) = r(\mu)\)

  • Then (LAX-MILGRAM) for any \(\mu \in D^\mu\), \(\|u(\mu)- Z_N u_N(\mu) \|_X \leq \frac{\|r(\mu)\|_{X'}}{\alpha_{LB}(\mu)} =: \Delta_N(\mu)\), \(|s(\mu)-s_N(\mu)| \leq \|L\|_{X'} \Delta_N(\mu) =: \Delta^s_N(\mu)\) where \(\alpha_{LB}(\mu)\) is a lower bound to \(\alpha_a(\mu)\), and \(\|r\|_{X'}=r^T X^{-1} r\).

2.2.3. Offline-Online decomposition

How do we compute \(u_N\), \(s_N\), \(\Delta_N^s\) for any \(\mu\) efficiently online ?

We assue \(A(\mu) = \displaystyle\sum_{q=1}^Q \theta^q(\mu)A^q\) where

  • \(\theta^q(\mu)\) are parameter depandent coefficients,

  • \(A^q\) are parameter independent matrices

so that \(A_N(\mu) = Z_N^T A(\mu)Z_N = \displaystyle \sum_{q=1}^Q \theta^q(\mu)\underbrace{Z_N^T A^q Z_N}_\text{parameter independant}\)

Since all required quantities can be decomposed in this manner, we can split the process in two phases :

  • OFFLINE : Form and store \(\mu\)-independant quantities at cost \(O(\mathcal{N})\),

  • ONLINE : For any \(\mu\in D^\mu\), compute approximation and error obunds at cost \(O(QN^2+N^3)\) and \(O(Q^2N^2)\).

2.2.4. Greedy Algorithm

How do we choose the sample points \(\mu_i\) (snapshots) optimally ?

Given \(Z_{N=2} « = » [u(\mu_1), u(\mu_2)]\), we choos \(\mu_{N+1}\) as follows

\[\mu_{N+1} = \mathrm{argmax}_{\mu\in D^\text{train}}\dfrac{\Delta_N(\mu)}{\Vert u_N(\mu)\Vert_X}\]

and \(Z_{N+1} := [u(\mu_1),\cdots, u(\mu_{N+1})\).

  • Key : \(\Delta_N(\mu)\) is sharp and inexpensive to compute (online)

  • Error bound gives « optimal » samples, so we get a good approximation \(u_N(\mu)\).

greedy procedure
Figure 5. Greedy algorithm

2.3. Summary

2.3.1. Reduced Basis Opportunities Computational Opportunities

  • We restrict our attention to the typically smooth and low-dimensional manifold induced by the parametric dependence.
    \(\Rightarrow\) Dimension reduction

  • We accept greatly increased offline cost in exchange for greatly decreased online cost.
    \(\Rightarrow\) Real-time and/or many-query context

2.3.2. Reduced Basis Relevance

Real-Time Context (control,\(\ldots\)): \(\begin{align} \mu & \rightarrow & s_N(\mu), \Delta^s_N(\mu) & \\ t_0 \text{(« input »)} & & & t_0+\delta t_{\mathrm{comp}} (\text{« response »}) \end{align}\)

Many-Query Context (design,\(\ldots\)): \(\begin{align} \mu_j & \rightarrow & s_N(\mu_j), \Delta^s_N(\mu_j),\quad j=1\ldots J \\ t_0 & & t_0+\delta t_{\mathrm{comp}} J\quad (J \rightarrow \infty) \end{align}\)

\(\Rightarrow\) Low parginal (real-time) and/or low average (many-query) cost.

2.3.3. Reduced Basis Challenges

  • A Posteriori error estimation

    • Rigorous error bounds for outputs of interest

    • Lower bounds to the stability « constants »

  • Offline-online computational procedures

    • Full decoupling of finite element and reduced basis spaces

    • A posteriori error estimation

    • Nonaffine and nonlinear problems

  • Effective sampling strategies

    • High parameter dimensions

2.3.4. Reduced Basis Outline

  1. Affine Elliptic Problems

    • (non)symmetric, (non)compliant, (non)coercive

    • (Convection)-diffusion, linear elasticity, Helmholtz

  2. Affine Parabolic Problems

    • (Convection)-diffusion equation

  3. Nonaffine and Nonlinear Problems

    • Nonaffine parameter dependence, nonpolynomial nonlinearities

  4. Reduced Basis (RB) Method for Fluid Flow

    • Saddle-Point Problems (Stokes)

    • Navier-Stokes Equations

  5. Applications

    • Parameter Optimization and Estimation (Inverse Problems)

    • Optimal Control